International Journal of Optimization in Civil Engineering
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Iran University of Science & Technology - Journal articles for year 2018, Volume 8, Number 2Yektaweb Collection - https://yektaweb.comen2018/8/10LEAK DETECTION IN WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM USING NON-LINEAR KALMAN FILTER
http://ijoce.iust.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=336&sid=1&slc_lang=en
Leakage detection in water distribution systems play an important role in storage and management of water resources. Therefore, to reduce water loss in these systems, a method should be introduced that reacts rapidly to such events and determines their occurrence time and location with the least possible error. In this study, in order to determine position and amount of leakage in distribution system, a detection method based on hydraulic model was evaluated using Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), which is a non-linear Kalman Filter. The results indicated that the method was well able to predict leakage position and its amount. Using a numerical model, a leakage was placed in 25.4 m distance of its upstream, amounting to 1.33 lit/sec which was equal to 10 percent of overall flow. The calculated mean position and leakage value by EKF were 27.17 m and 1.11 lit/sec, respectively.M. MollazadehESTIMATING DRYING SHRINKAGE OF CONCRETE USING A MULTIVARIATE ADAPTIVE REGRESSION SPLINES APPROACH
http://ijoce.iust.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=338&sid=1&slc_lang=en
In the present study, the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique is employed to estimate the drying shrinkage of concrete. To this purpose, a very big database (RILEM Data Bank) from different experimental studies is used. Several effective parameters such as the age of onset of shrinkage measurement, age at start of drying, the ratio of the volume of the sample on its drying surface, relative humidity, cement content, the ratio between water and cement contents, the ratio of sand on total aggregate, average compressive strength at 28 days, and modulus of elasticity at 28 days are included in the developing process of MARS model. The performance of MARS model is compared with several codes of practice including ACI, B3, CEB MC90-99, and GL2000. The results confirmed the superior capability of developed MARS model over existing design codes. Furthermore, the robustness of the developed model is also verified through sensitivity and parametric analyses.A. KavehA COMPARATIVE STUDY OF OPTIMUM AND IRANIAN SEISMIC DESIGN FORCE DISTRIBUTIONS FOR STEEL MOMENT RESISTING BUILDINGS
http://ijoce.iust.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=340&sid=1&slc_lang=en
In this study, constant-ductility optimization algorithm under a family of earthquake ground motions is utilized to achieve uniform damage distribution over the height of steel moment resisting frames (SMRFs). SMRF structures with stiffness-degrading hysteric behavior are modeled as single-bay generic frame in which the plastic hinge is confined only at the beam ends and the bottom of the first story columns. Several SMRFs having different fundamental periods and number of stories are optimized such that a uniform story damage (ductility demand) is obtained under a given earthquake ground motion. Then, the optimum lateral load pattern derived from the optimization process is compared with that of the design load pattern proposed by the latest version of the Iranian code of practice, Standard No. 2800 to evaluate the adequacy of the seismic code design pattern. Results of this study indicate that, generally, the average story shear strength profiles corresponding to the optimum seismic design are significantly different from those of the Standard No. 2800 story shear strength pattern. In fact, the height-wise distribution of story ductility demands resulted from utilizing code-based design lateral load pattern are very non-uniform when compared to the corresponding optimum cases. In addition, a significant dependency is found between the average story shear strength pattern and inelastic behavior of structural elements.B. GanjaviTOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION OF PLANE STRUCTURES USING BINARY LEVEL SET METHOD AND ISOGEOMETRIC ANALYSIS
http://ijoce.iust.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=341&sid=1&slc_lang=en
This paper presents the topology optimization of plane structures using a binary level set (BLS) approach and isogeometric analysis (IGA). In the standard level set method, the domain boundary is descripted as an isocountour of a scalar function of a higher dimensionality. The evolution of this boundary is governed by Hamilton–Jacobi equation. In the BLS method, the interfaces of subdomains are implicitly represented by the discontinuities of BLS functions taking two values 1 or −1. The subdomains interfaces are represented by discontinuities of these functions. Using a two–phase approximation and the BLS approach the original structural optimization problem is reformulated as an equivalent constrained optimization problem in terms of this level set function. For solving drawbacks of the conventional finite element method (FEM), IGA based on a Non–Uniform Rational B–Splines (NURBS) is adopted to describe the field variables as the geometry of the domain. For this purpose, the B–Spline functions are utilized as the shape functions of FEM for analysis of structure and the control points are considered the same role with nodes in FEM. Three benchmark examples are presented to investigate the performance the topology optimization based on the proposed method. Numerical results demonstrate that the BLS method with IGA can be utilized in this field.M. KhatibiniaOPTIMAL DECOMPOSITION OF FINITE ELEMENT MESHES VIA K-MEDIAN METHODOLOGY AND DIFFERENT METAHEURISTICS
http://ijoce.iust.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=342&sid=1&slc_lang=en
In this paper the performance of four well-known metaheuristics consisting of Artificial Bee Colony (ABC), Biogeographic Based Optimization (BBO), Harmony Search (HS) and Teaching Learning Based Optimization (TLBO) are investigated on optimal domain decomposition for parallel computing. A clique graph is used for transforming the connectivity of a finite element model (FEM) into that of the corresponding graph, and <em>k-</em>median approach is employed. The performance of these methods is investigated through four FE models with different topology and number of meshes. A comparison of the numerical results using different algorithms indicates, in most cases the BBO is capable of performing better or identical using less time with equal computational effort.A. KavehEFFICIENCY FACTOR OF SUPPLEMENTARY CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS: A STATE OF ART
http://ijoce.iust.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=343&sid=1&slc_lang=en
The use of supplementary cementing materials is gradually increasing due to technical, economical, and environmental benefits. Supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) are most commonly used in producing ready mixed concrete (RMC). A quantitative understanding of the efficiency of SCMs as a mineral admixture in concrete is essential for its effective utilisation. The performance and effective utilization of various SCMs can be possible to analyze, using the concept of the efficiency factor (k-value). This study describes the overview of various studies carried out on the efficiency factor of SCMs. Also, it is an effort directed towards a specific understanding of the efficiency of SCMs in concrete. Further it includes an overview of artificial neural network (ANN) for the prediction of the efficiency factor of SCMs in concrete. It is found that The model generated through ANN provided a tool to calculate efficiency factor (k) and capture the effects of different parameters such as, water-binder ratio; cement dosage; percentage replacement of SCMs; and curing age.A. N. KhanSOLVING MULTI CONSTRAINTS STRUCTURAL TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM WITH REFORMULATION OF LEVEL SET METHOD
http://ijoce.iust.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=344&sid=1&slc_lang=en
Due to the favorable performance of structural topology optimization to create a proper understanding in the early stages of design, this issue is taken into consideration from the standpoint of research or industrial application in recent decades. Over the last three decades, several methods have been proposed for topology optimization. One of the methods that has been effectively used in structural topology optimization is level set method. Since in the level set method, the boundary of design domain is displayed implicitly, this method can easily modify the shape and topology of structure. Topological design with multiple constraints is of great importance in practical engineering design problems. Most recent topology optimization methods have used only the volume constraint<span dir="RTL">;</span> so in this paper, in addition to current volume constraint, the level set method combines with other constraints such as displacement and frequency. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed level set approach, several examples are presented.S. ShojaeeAPPLICATION OF FINITE ELEMENT MODEL UPDATING FOR DAMAGE ASSESSMENT OF SPACE STRUCTURE USING CHARGED SYSTEM SEARCH ALGORITHM
http://ijoce.iust.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=345&sid=1&slc_lang=en
Damage assessment is one of the crucial topics in the operation of structures. Multiplicities of structural elements and joints are the main challenges about damage assessment of space structure. Vibration-based damage evaluation seems to be effective and useful for application in industrial conditions and the low-cost. A method is presented to detect and assess structural damages from changes in mode shapes. First, the mechanism of using two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform is applied for damage localization. Second, finite element model updating technique is utilized as an inverse optimization problem by applying the charged system search algorithm to assess the damage in each element sited in the first stage. The study indicates the potentiality of the developed code to assess the damages of space structures without concerning about the size and shape of structure. A series of numerical examples with different damage scenarios have been carried out in the double layer space structures and the results confirm the reliability and applicability of introduced method.A. GholizadCHARGED SYSTEM SEARCH FOR OPTIMUM DESIGN OF COST-EFFECTIVE STRUCTURAL BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR IMPROVING WATER QUALITY
http://ijoce.iust.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=346&sid=1&slc_lang=en
Best Management Practices (BMPs) are implemented in a watershed to reduce the amount of non-point source pollutants transported to water bodies. However, an optimization algorithm is required to choose the efficient type, size, and location of BMPs for application in a watershed for improving the water quality. In this study, the Charged System Search, a well-known and powerful meta-heuristic optimization algorithm, as an optimization model and a semi-distributed hydrological model i.e. Soil and Water Assesment Tool (SWAT) were coupled to obtain cost-effective combination of different BMPs. To demonstrate the performance and applicability of the coupled model, it was utilized to Sofichai watershed upstream of the Alavian Reservoir in the northwestern part of Iran to compare four reduction levels of sediment, nitrate nitrogen and phosphate phosphorous loads at the watershed outlet.M. T. AlamiDIFFERENT NEURAL NETWORKS AND MODAL TREE METHOD FOR PREDICTING ULTIMATE BEARING CAPACITY OF PILES
http://ijoce.iust.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=347&sid=1&slc_lang=en
The prediction of the ultimate bearing capacity of the pile under axial load is one of the important issues for many researches in the field of geotechnical engineering. In recent years, the use of computational intelligence techniques such as different methods of artificial neural network has been developed in terms of physical and numerical modeling aspects. In this study, a database of 100 prefabricated steel and concrete piles is available from existing publications to solve issues related to pile’s bearing capacity analysis. Three different artificial neural network algorithms were developed for comparing and verifying the obtained results at analyzing the bearing capacity of pile in soils. During the modeling process, the geometric properties of different piles, soil materials properties, friction angle and flap numbers (hammer blows) were selected as input parameters to the selected network and the output from the network was considered as the bearing capacity of the pile. Finally, the performance of radial base function type neural networks was compared with model tree method and predictive neural networks based on different learning algorithms such as Levenberg-Marquardt and Bayesian Regulation Back Propagation Algorithms. It was observed that the radial base neural network in some cases achieved better results from accuracy based on common statistical parameters such as correlation coefficient, mean absolute error percentage and root mean square error as compared to other stated methods and it showed the acceptable performance in modeling and predicting the desired output close to the target's results.H. Harandizadeh