International Journal of Optimization in Civil Engineering
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Iran University of Science & Technology - Journal articles for year 2012, Volume 2, Number 2Yektaweb Collection - https://yektaweb.comen2012/6/12OPTIMAL ANALYSIS OF NON-REGULAR GRAPHS USING THE RESULTS OF REGULAR MODELS VIA AN ITERATIVE METHOD
http://ijoce.iust.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=84&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<font size="2">In this paper an efficient method is developed for the analysis of non-regular graphs which contain regular submodels. A model is called regular if it can be expressed as the product of two or three subgraphs. Efficient decomposition methods are available in the literature for the analysis of some classes of regular models. In the present method, for a non-regular model, first the nodes of the non-regular part of such model are ordered followed by ordering the nodes of the regular part. With this ordering the graph matrices will be separated into two blocks. The eigensolution of the non-regular part can be performed by an iterative method, and those of the regular part can easily be calculated using decomposition approaches studied in our previous articles. Some numerical examples are included to illustrate the efficiency of the new method. </font>A. KavehA THEORETICALLY CORRECT RESOURCE USAGE VISUALIZATION FOR THE RESOURCE-CONSTRAINED PROJECT SCHEDULING PROBLEM
http://ijoce.iust.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=85&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<font size="2">The cumulative resource constraints of the resource-constrained project scheduling problem (RCPSP) do not treat the resource demands as geometric rectangles, that is, activities are not necessarily assigned to the same resource units over their processing times. In spite of this fact, most papers on resource-constrained project scheduling mainly in the motivation phase use a strip packing of rectangles (SPR) like visualization to illustrate the resource allocation. A novice researcher inspired by the "artistic" SPR visualization may think that the "rectangles" are essential elements of the RCPSP, and that the RCPSP is a special counter-intuitive strip packing problem (SPP) which can be solved without explicitly defined strip packing constraints. In this context "artistic" means, that we have to use a "drawing tool" to produce a SPR like visualization, because the standard model of the RCPSP knows nothing about the rectangles. In the RCPSP, the rectangles can be torn vertically and horizontally, which is absurd in the SPP, and the existence of a cumulative solution is only a necessary but not sufficient condition of the existence of the SPR like visualization, as proven by several researchers. Therefore the popular SPR visualization is theoretically wrong and misleading, and hides a real problem, which is connected to the dedicated resource assignment. In this paper, we prove that replacing the rectangles with a set of strips with unit height we can always generate a theoretically correct strip packing of strips (SPS) like dedicated assignment, where dedicated means that each demand unit is served by exactly one resource unit over its duration without "hidden" transfer time and cost. </font>A. CsébfalviA POLYNOMIAL TIME BRANCH AND BOUND ALGORITHM FOR THE SINGLE ITEM ECONOMIC LOT SIZING PROBLEM WITH ALL UNITS DISCOUNT AND RESALE
http://ijoce.iust.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=86&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<font size="2">The purpose of this paper is to present a polynomial time algorithm which determines the lot sizes for purchase component in Material Requirement Planning (MRP) environments with deterministic time-phased demand with zero lead time. In this model, backlog is not permitted, the unit purchasing price is based on the all-units discount system and resale of the excess units is possible at the ordering time. The properties of an optimal order policy are argued and on the basis of them, a branch and bound algorithm is presented to construct an optimal sequence of order policies. In the proposed B&B algorithm, some useful fathoming rules have been proven to make the algorithm very efficient. By defining a rooted tree graph, it has been shown that the worst-case time complexity function of the presented algorithm is polynomial. Finally, some test problems which are randomly generated in various environments are solved to show the efficiency of the algorithm. </font>S.H. MirmohammadiGENERATION OF ENDURANCE TIME ACCELERATION FUNCTIONS USING THE WAVELET TRANSFORM
http://ijoce.iust.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=87&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<font size="2">Endurance Time Acceleration Functions are specially predesigned intensifying excitation functions that their amplitude increases with time. On the other hand, wavelet transform is a mathematical tool that indicates time variations of frequency in a signal. In this paper, an approach is presented for generating endurance time acceleration functions (ETAFs) whose response spectrum is compatible with the European Code regulations (EC8) elastic spectrum. Method applied is a modification of data in time and frequency domain. For this purpose, wavelet transform has been used to decompose a series of random points to several levels such that each level covers a special range of frequency, then every level is divided into the numbers of equal time intervals and each interval of time is multiplied by a variable. Subsequently, the mathematical unconstrained optimization algorithm is used to calculate the variables and minimize error between response and target spectra. The prosed procedure is used in two methods. Then with two methods, two different acceleration functions are produced. </font>A. Kaveh OPTIMIZED TUNED LIQUID COLUMN DAMPERS FOR EARTHQUAKE OSCILLATIONS OF HIGH-RISE STRUCTURES INCLUDING SOIL EFFECTS
http://ijoce.iust.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=88&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<font size="2">This paper investigates the optimized parameters for the tuned liquid column dampers to decrease the earthquake vibrations of high-rise buildings. Considering soil effects, the soilstructure interaction (SSI) is involved in this model. The Tuned Liquid Column Damper (TLCD) is also utilized on the roof of the building. Since the TLCD is a nonlinear device, the time domain analysis based on nonlinear Newmark method is employed to obtain the displacement, velocity and acceleration of different stories and TLCD. To illustrate the results, Kobe earthquake data is applied to the model. In order to obtain the best settings for TLCD, different parameters of TLCD are examined with constant mass quantity. The effective length, head loss coefficient, cross sectional ratio and length ratio of TLCD are assumed as the design variables. The objective is to reduce the maximum absolute and Root Mean Square (RMS) values of displacement and acceleration during earthquake vibration. The results show that the TLCDs are very effective and beneficial devices for decreasing the oscillations of high-rise buildings. It is indicated that the soil type highly affects the suitable parameters of TLCD subjected to the earthquake oscillations. This study helps the researchers to the better understanding of earthquake vibration of the structures including soil effects, and leads the designers to achieve the optimized TLCD for the high-rise buildings. </font>A. FarshidianfarGENETIC ALGORITHM BASED EQUIPMENT SELECTION METHOD FOR CONSTRUCTION PROJECT USING MATLAB TOOL
http://ijoce.iust.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=89&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<font size="2">Equipment selection is a key factor in modern construction industry. As it is a complex factor, current models offered by literatures fail to provide adequate solutions for major issues like systematic evaluation of soft factors and weighting of soft benefits in comparison with costs. This paper aims at making a comparative study between GA and AHP by utilising MATLAB as a tool. It is a convenient tool offering an orderly methodical thinking. It guides them in making consistent decisions and provides a facility for all necessary computation. </font>P. ValliIMPOSITION OF ESSENTIAL BOUNDARY CONDITIONS IN ISOGEOMETRIC ANALYSIS USING THE LAGRANGE MULTIPLIER METHOD
http://ijoce.iust.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=90&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<font size="2">NURBS-based isogeometric analysis (IGA) has currently been applied as a new numerical method in a considerable range of engineering problems. Due to non-interpolatory characteristic of NURBS basis functions, the properties of Kronecker Delta are not satisfied in IGA, and as a consequence, the imposition of essential boundary condition needs special treatment. The main contribution of this study is to use the well-known Lagrange multiplier method to impose essential boundary conditions for improving the accuracy of the isogeometric solution. Unlike the direct and transformation methods which are based on separation of control points, this method is capable of modeling incomplete Dirichlet boundaries. The solution accuracy and convergence rates of proposed method are compared with direct and transformation methods through various numerical examples. </font>S. ShojaeeASSESSMENT OF MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF THE HOWE, PRATT AND BELGIUM WOOD TRUSS TYPE OPTIMIZED BY THE METHOD OF GENETIC ALGORITHMS
http://ijoce.iust.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=91&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<font size="2">This paper presents the study of the optimized bi-dimensional wood structures, truss type, applying the method of genetic algorithms. Assessment is performed by means of a computer program called OPS (Optimization of Plane Structures). The purpose is to meet the optimum geometric configuration taking into account the volume reduction. Different strategies are considered for the positioning of diagonals and struts in the upper chord. It is concluded that the trussed system efficiency depends on the dimensions and the position of the members, where the purlin’s location is not mandatory for struts and diagonal positions. </font>D.A. De Souza JuniorCOLLAPSE ANALYSIS BY ENDURANCE TIME METHOD
http://ijoce.iust.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=92&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<font size="2">Estimation of collapse performance is primarily conducted through Collapse Fragility Curves (CFC’s). The EDP-based approach is the main scheme for attaining such curves and employs IDA. Obtaining CFC’s from IDA results is tremendously time consuming and computationally demanding. Introduction of more efficient methods of seismic analysis, can potentially improve this issue. The Endurance Time (ET) method is a straightforward method for dynamic analysis of structures subjected to multilevel excitation intensities. In this paper, collapse analysis using ET analysis results to obtain EDP-based CFC’s, has been explained and demonstrated by a model. For verification, the resulting CFC has been compared to that obtained by IDA. </font>H.E. EstekanchiBASIS PURSUIT BASED GENETIC ALGORITHM FOR DAMAGE IDENTIFICATION
http://ijoce.iust.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=93&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<font size="2">In damage detection the number of elements is generally more than the number of measured frequencies. Consequently, the corresponding damage detection equation is undetermined and thus has infinite solutions. Since in the damaged structures most of their elements remain healthy, the sparsest solution for the damage detection equation is mostly the actual damage. In the proposed method, the damage equation is first linearized in various ways using random finite difference increments. The sparsest solutions for created linear system of equations are derived using basis pursuit. These solutions are considered as the first population for a continuous genetic algorithm to obtain the damage solution. For investigation of the proposed method three case studies are considered. Simulation results confirm the efficiency of the proposed method compared to those found in the literature. </font> E. Salajegheh