International Journal of Optimization in Civil Engineering
http://ijoce.iust.ac.ir
Iran University of Science & Technology - Journal articles for year 2018, Volume 8, Number 1Yektaweb Collection - http://www.yektaweb.comen2018/1/11FEASIBILITY OF PSO-ANFIS-PSO AND GA-ANFIS-GA MODELS IN PREDICTION OF PEAK GROUND ACCELERATION
http://ijoce.iust.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=321&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<p>In the present study, two new hybrid approaches are proposed for predicting peak ground acceleration (PGA) parameter. The proposed approaches are based on the combinations of Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy System (ANFIS) with Genetic Algorithm (GA), and with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). In these approaches, the PSO and GA algorithms are employed to enhance the accuracy of ANFIS model. To develop hybrid models, a comprehensive database from Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) are used to train and test the proposed models. Earthquake magnitude, earthquake source to site distance, average shear-wave velocity, and faulting mechanisms are used as predictive parameters. The performances of developed hybrid models (PSO-ANFIS-PSO and GA-ANFIS-GA) are compared with the ANFIS model and also the most common soft computing approaches available in the literature. According to the obtained results, three developed models can be effectively used to predict the PGA parameter, but the comparison of models shows that the PSO-ANFIS–PSO model provides better results.</p>
A. KavehGENERATION OF SYNTHETIC EARTHQUAKE RECORDS BY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUES
http://ijoce.iust.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=322&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<p>For seismic resistant design of critical structures, a dynamic analysis, based on either response spectrum or time history is frequently required. Due to the lack of recorded data and randomness of earthquake ground motion that might be experienced by the structure under probable future earthquakes, it is usually difficult to obtain recorded data which fit the necessary parameters (e.g. soil type, source mechanism, focal depth, etc.) well. In this paper, a new method for generating artificial earthquake accelerograms from the target earthquake spectrum is suggested based on the use of wavelet analysis and artificial neural networks. This procedure applies the learning capabilities of neural network to expand the knowledge of inverse mapping from the response spectrum to the earthquake accelerogram. At the first step, wavelet analysis is utilized to decompose earthquake accelerogram into several levels, which each of them covers a special range of frequencies. Then for every level, a neural network is trained to learn the relationship between the response spectrum and wavelet coefficients. Finally, the generated accelerogram using inverse discrete wavelet transform is obtained. In order to make earthquake signals compact in the proposed method, the multiplication sample of LPC (Linear predictor coefficients) is used. Some examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.</p>
M. Fadavi AmiriNUMERICAL TECHNIQUES FOR DIFFERENT THERMAL INSULATION MATERIALS
http://ijoce.iust.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=323&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<p>The objective of this work is to predict the temperature of the different types of walls which are Ferro cement wall, reinforced cement concrete (RCC) wall and two types of cavity walls (combined RCC with Ferrocement and combined two Ferro cement walls) with the help of mathematical modeling. The property of low thermal transmission of small air gap between the constituents of combine materials has been utilized to obtain energy efficient wall section. Ferro cement is a highly versatile form of reinforced concrete made up of wire mesh, sand, water, and cement, which possesses unique qualities of strength and serviceability. The significant intention of the proposed technique is to frame a mathematical modeling with the aid of optimization techniques. Mathematical modeling is done by minimizing the cost and time consumed in the case of extension of the existing work. Mathematical modeling is utilized to predict the temperature of the different wall such as RCC wall, Ferro cement, combined RCC with Ferro cement and combined Ferro cement wall. The different optimization algorithms such as Social Spider Optimization (SSO), Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Group Search Optimization (GSO) are utilized to find the optimal weights α and β of the mathematical modeling. All optimum results demonstrate that the attained error values between the output of the experimental values and the predicted values are closely equal to zero with the SSO model. The results of the proposed work are compared with the existing methods and the minimum errors with SSO algorithm for the case of two combined RCC wall was found to be less than 2%.</p>
M. K. RoulOPTIMUM SELECTION OF NUMBER AND LOCATION OF GEOTECHNICAL BOREHOLES BASED ON SOIL RESISTANCE
http://ijoce.iust.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=324&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<p>Digging of geotechnical boreholes and soil resistance tests are time-consuming and expensive activities. Therefore selection of optimum number and suitable location of boreholes can reduce cost of their drilling and soil resistance tests. In this research, a model which is consisting of geo statistics model as an estimator and an optimized model is selected. The kriging calculates the variance of the estimation error of different combinations from available geotechnical boreholes. In each combination, n is number of considered boreholes and N is number of available boreholes (N>n). At the end, the best combination is selected by genetic algorithm (the error variance of this combination is minimum). Also the Kean Shahr of Ahvaz city (in Khuzestan province, Iran) is selected as case study in this research. Location of selected boreholes is in points that soil resistance of these points represents mean soil resistance of total region. Optimum number of boreholes is 15. Also results show that location of selected boreholes depends to soil resistance and diameter and length of applied piles are not important for this purpose.</p>
M. OulapourA FAST FUZZY-TUNED MULTI-OBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION FOR SIZING PROBLEMS
http://ijoce.iust.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=325&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<p>The most recent approaches of multi-objective optimization constitute application of meta-heuristic algorithms for which, parameter tuning is still a challenge. The present work hybridizes swarm intelligence with fuzzy operators to extend crisp values of the main control parameters into especial fuzzy sets that are constructed based on a number of prescribed facts. Such parameter-less particle swarm optimization is employed as the core of a multi-objective optimization framework with a repository to save Pareto solutions. The proposed method is tested on a variety of benchmark functions and structural sizing examples. Results show that it can provide Pareto front by lower computational time in competition with some other popular multi-objective algorithms.</p>
M. ShahrouziDAMAGE AND PLASTICITY CONSTANTS OF CONVENTIONAL AND HIGH-STRENGTH CONCRETE
PART I: STATISTICAL OPTIMIZATION USING GENETIC ALGORITHM
http://ijoce.iust.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=327&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<p>The constitutive relationships presented for concrete modeling are often associated with unknown material constants. These constants are in fact the connectors of mathematical models to experimental results. Experimental determination of these constants is always associated with some difficulties. Their values are usually determined through trial and error procedure, with regard to experimental results. In this study, in order to determine the material constants of an elastic-damage-plastic model proposed for concrete, the results of 44 uniaxial compression and tension experiments collected from literature were used. These constants were determined by investigating the consistency of experimental and modeling results using a genetic algorithm optimization tool for all the samples; then, the precision of resulted constants were investigated by simulating cyclic and biaxial loading experiments. The simulation results were compared to those of the corresponding experimental data. The results observed in comparisons indicated the accuracy of obtained material constants in concrete modeling.</p>
A. R. BagheriehTHE COST OPTIMIZATION OF A COMPOSITE METAL FLOOR DECK BY HARMONY SEARCH METAHEURISTIC ALGORITHM
http://ijoce.iust.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=328&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<p>The purpose of this research to present for the first time a practical plan to cost optimize the composite metal floor deck, so that the designer, by having the dimensions of the main beam framing, will be able to come to the most design including: the section of composite steel beam, the beam span, the thickness of metal deck sheets and the thickness of the concrete slab. The main method of optimization by using metaheuristic algorithm is harmony search which its objective function is equal with these costs: steel beam, metal deck and concrete slab in one square meter of the floor. The standards of this design is according to SDI code and the Iranian National Building Code, Part 10: Design and Construction of steel buildings -allowable stress method. In this design all the metal beam profiles are the common and practical sections in building industry. Also the chosen metal deck, by the brand name Sundeck 75, is the most economical metal deck produced in the country Iran which is invented by the writer 1 and has been confirmed by Road, housing and Development Research center. In the end to ensure all the results of the harmony search optimization, several questions has been optimized, so the comparison of its results with the harmony algorithm results indicates that the high convergence in this algorithm.</p>
H. HatefiAPPLICATION OF WAVELET THEORY IN DETERMINING OF STRONG GROUND MOTION PARAMETERS
http://ijoce.iust.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=329&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<p>Cumulative absolute velocity (CAV), Arias intensity (AI), and characteristic intensity (CI) are measurable characteristics to show collapse potential of structures, evaluation of earth movement magnitude, and detection of structural failure in an earthquake. In this paper, parameters which describe three characteristics of ground motion have been investigated by using wavelet transforms (WT). In fact, in this paper, a series of twenty eight earthquake records (ER) are decomposed to a pre-defined certain levels by the use of WT. The high and low frequencies are separated. Since higher frequencies do not have any significant effect on the ER, then the low frequencies of ER have been used. For this purpose, each ER is decomposed into 5 levels. Then, for low frequencies of ER, the CAV, AI, and CI are calculated for each level and the results are compared with the values of CAV, AI, and CI which have been computed for the original ER. The results indicate that the value of error is less than 1 percent in the first and second level and this value is less than 10 percent for the third level. In addition, this value is more than 15 percent for the fourth and fifth levels. If the acceptable value for error is considered to be less than 10 percent, it is recommended to use the third level of decomposition for determining these parameters, since the value of error is low and also, the required time is reduced.</p>
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A. HeidariAN OPTIMAL CUCKOO SEARCH-FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER FOR OPTIMAL STRUCTURAL CONTROL
http://ijoce.iust.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=330&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<p>An optimal semi-active Cuckoo- Fuzzy algorithm is developed to drive the hydraulic semi-active damper for effective control of the dynamic deformation of building structures under earthquake loadings, in this paper. Hydraulic semi-active dampers (MR dampers) are semi active control devices that are managed by sending external voltage supply. A new adaptive fuzzy logic controller (FLC) is introduced to manage MR damper intelligently. Furthermore, a novel evolutionary algorithm of cuckoo search (CS) was employed to optimize the placement and the number of MR dampers and sensors in the sense of minimum resultant vibration magnitude. Numerical efforts were accomplished to validate the efficiency of proposed FLC. In designer’s point of view, the proposed CS-FLC controller can find the optimal solutions during a reasonable number of iterations. Finally, The simulation results show that the developed semi‐active damper can significantly enhance the seismic performance of the buildings in terms of controlled story drift and roof displacement and acceleration. CS-FLC controller uses less input energy and could find the appropriate control force and attenuates the excessive responses in several buildings. The findings in this study will help engineers to design control systems for seismic risk mitigation and effectively facilitate the performance‐based seismic design.</p>
M. Zabihi-SamaniDAMAGE AND PLASTICITY CONSTANTS OF CONVENTIONAL AND HIGH-STRENGTH CONCRETE
PART II: STATISTICAL EQUATION DEVELOPMENT USING GENETIC PROGRAMMING
http://ijoce.iust.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=334&sid=1&slc_lang=en
<p>Several researchers have proved that the constitutive models of concrete based on combination of continuum damage and plasticity theories are able to reproduce the major aspects of concrete behavior. A problem of such damage-plasticity models is associated with the material constants which are needed to be determined before using the model. These constants are in fact the connectors of constitutive models to the experimental results. Experimental determination of these constants is always associated with some problems, which restricts the applicability of such models despite their accuracy and capabilities. In the present paper, the values of material constants for a damage-plasticity model determined in part I of this work were used as a database. Genetic programming was employed to discover equations which directly relate the material constants to the concrete primary variables whose values could be simply inferred from the results of uniaxial tension and compressive tests. The simulations of uniaxial tension and compressive tests performed by using the constants extracted from the proposed equations, exhibited a reasonable level of precision. The validity of suggested equations were also assessed via simulating experiments which were not involved in the procedure of equation discovery. The comparisons revealed the satisfactory accuracy of proposed equations.</p>
A. R. Bagherieh