2013
3
2
10
358
AUTOMATED SIZING OF TRUSS STRUCTURES USING A COMPUTATIONALLY IMPROVED SOPT ALGORITHM
2
2
The present study attempts to apply an efficient yet simple optimization (SOPT) algorithm to optimum design of truss structures under stress and displacement constraints. The computational efficiency of the technique is improved through avoiding unnecessary analyses during the course of optimization using the so-called upper bound strategy (UBS). The efficiency of the UBS integrated SOPT algorithm is evaluated through benchmark sizing optimization problems of truss structures and the numerical results are reported. A comparison of the numerical results attained using the SOPT algorithm with those of modern metaheuristic techniques demonstrates that the employed algorithm is capable of locating promising designs with considerably less computational effort.
209
221
O.
Hasançebi
O.
Hasançebi
oguzhan@metu.edu.tr
S.
Kazemzadeh Azad
S.
Kazemzadeh Azad
S.
Kazemzadeh Azad
S.
Kazemzadeh Azad
structural design optimization; sizing optimization; truss structures; SOPT algorithm; metaheuristic techniques; upper bound strategy
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EFFICIENT SIMULATION FOR OPTIMIZATION OF TOPOLOGY, SHAPE AND SIZE OF MODULAR TRUSS STRUCTURES
2
2
The prevalent strategy in the topology optimization phase is to select a subset of members existing in an excessively connected truss, called Ground Structure, such that the overall weight or cost is minimized. Although finding a good topology significantly reduces the overall cost, excessive growth of the size of topology space combined with existence of varied types of design variables challenges applicability of evolutionary algorithms tailored for simultaneous optimization of topology, shape and size (TSS) in more complicated cases which are of great practical interest. In practice, large-scale truss structures are often modular, formed by joining periodically repeated units. This article organizes a novel simulation approach for this class of truss structures where the main drawbacks of the ground structure-based simulation approach are greatly moderated. The two approaches are independently employed for simultaneous TSS optimization of a modular truss example and the size of topology space as well as the required computation budget to generate an acceptable candidate design is compared. Result comparison reveals by employing the novel approach, problem complexity grows linearly with respect to the number of modules which allows for expanding application of TSS optimizers to complex modular trusses. Use of relative coordinates is also warranted for shape optimization which concludes to a more efficient optimization process.
209
223
A.
Ahrari
A.
Ahrari
A. A.
Atai
A. A.
Atai
aataee@ut.ac.ir
truss optimization; topology space; sampling complexity; ground structure; relative coordinates
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INVESTIGATION OF NON-LINEAR CYCLES’ PROPERTIES IN STRUCTURES SUBJECTED TO ENDURANCE TIME EXCITATION FUNCTIONS
2
2
Endurance Time Method (ET) is a dynamic analysis in which structures are subjected to intensifying accelerograms that are optimized in a way that seismic performance of structures can be estimated at different hazard levels with the best possible accuracy. For the currently available ET accelerograms, regardless of the shaking characteristic, an excitation level is recognized as a representative of a specific hazard level, when the acceleration and the displacement spectrum produced by the ET accelerograms up to that excitation level will be compatible with the acceleration and the displacement spectrum associated with that hazard level. This study compares the shaking characteristics of the current ET accelerograms with the ground motions. For this purpose, distribution of plastic cycles and the equivalent number of the cycles are considered as shaking properties of a motion. This study suggests a procedure to achieve the best possible consistency between the equivalent number of cycles of the current ET records and the ground motions. Moreover, a procedure to generate the new generation and optimization of the ET accelerograms which are more consistent with the ground motions are suggested.
225
243
M.
Mashayekhi
M.
Mashayekhi
H.E.
Estekanchi
H.E.
Estekanchi
stkanchi@sharif.edu
equivalent hysteretic cycles; endurance time method; strong-motion duration; degrading materials; optimal dynamic analysis; performance based design
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OPTIMUM WEIGHTED MODE COMBINATION FOR NONLINEAR STATIC ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES
2
2
In recent years some multi-mode pushover procedures taking into account higher mode effects, have been proposed. The responses of considered modes are combined by the quadratic combination rules, while using the elastic modal combination rules in the inelastic phases is not valid. Here, an optimum weighted mode combination method for nonlinear static analysis is presented. Genetic algorithm is used for optimization of the modal weight. The proposed procedure is applied for a sample building. The results show that the resulted response from the proposed method has minimal error in comparison with the response of the nonlinear time history analysis.
245
257
K.
Shakeri
K.
Shakeri
shakeri@uma.ac.ir
pushover; modal combination; optimization; genetic algorithm
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MINIMIZING HANKEL’S NORM AS DESIGN CRITERION OF MULTIPLE TUNED MASS DAMPERS
2
2
Tuned mass damper (TMD) have been studied and installed in structures extensively to protect the structures against lateral loads. Multiple tuned mass dampers (MTMDs) which include a number of TMDs with different parameters have been proposed for improving the performance of single TMDs. When the structural system is considered as multiple degrees of freedom (MDOF) and implemented with MTMDs, there is no effective closed-form solution to determine the optimal parameters of MTMDs. On the other hand designing optimal MTMDs include a large number of variables. For optimal design of MTMDs, in this research an effective method has been proposed in which the parameters of TMDs are determined based on minimizing the Hankel’s norm of structure. Since the optimization procedure includes a large number of variables, hence it has been decided to use Genetic Algorithms (GAs) for determining the variables. For numerical simulation, the method has been utilized on an eight-storey shear frame modeled as MDOF, and optimal MTMDs have been designed. The results show that using the Hankel’s norm of structure as objective function has led to design effective MTMDs which could be effective in reducing the response of structure, especially the average value, under different far-field and near-field earthquakes. Also it has been found that the method is effective regarding its simplicity and convergence in solving complex optimization problem. Through extensive numerical analysis the effect of MTMDs mass ratio and TMDs number in MTMDs has been studied.
271
288
M.
Mohebbi
M.
Mohebbi
mohebbi@uma.ac.ir
passive control; tuned mass damper; multiple tuned mass damper; hankel’s norm; optimization
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A PRACTICAL WEIGHT OPTIMIZATION FOR MOMENT FRAMES UNDER COMBINED LOADING
2
2
This article introduces three simple ideas that lead to the efficient design of regular moment frames. The finite module concept assumes that the moment frame may be construed as being composed of predesigned, imaginary rectangular modules that fit into the bays of the structure. Plastic design analysis aims at minimizing the demand-capacity ratios of elements of ductile moment frames by inducing the strength and stiffnesses of groups of members in accordance with certain design criteria, rather than investigating their suitability against the same rules of compliance. Collapse modes and stability conditions are imposed rather than investigated. In short, theory of structures is applied rather than followed. Plastic displacement control suggests that in addition to conducting failure analysis, the maximum displacements of plausible failure modes at incipient collapse should also be taken into consideration. While two collapse mechanisms may share the same carrying capacity, their maximum displacements may be different.
289
312
M.
Grigorian
M.
Grigorian
Markarjan@aol.com
A.
Kaveh
A.
Kaveh
weight optimization, plastic design, modular analysis, lateral displacements, moment frames.
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ISOGEOMETRIC TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION OF STRUCTURES BY USING MMA
2
2
The Isogeometric Analysis (IA) method is applied for structural topology optimization instead of the finite element method. For this purpose, the material density is considered as a continuous function throughout the design domain and approximated by the Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) basis functions. The coordinates of control points which are also used for constructing the density function, are considered as design variables of the optimization problem. In order to change the design variables towards optimum, the Method of Moving Asymptotes (MMA) is used. To alleviate the formation of layouts with porous media, the density function is penalized during the optimization process. A few examples are presented to demonstrate the performance of the method.
313
326
S. M.
Tavakkoli
S. M.
Tavakkoli
mtavakkoli@shahroodut.ac.ir
B.
Hassani
B.
Hassani
H.
Ghasemnejad
H.
Ghasemnejad
topology optimization; isogeometric analysis; MMA; structural optimization
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PERFORMANCE-BASED DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF STEEL MOMENT FRAMES
2
2
This study deals with performance-based design optimization (PBDO) of steel moment frames employing four different metaheuristics consisting of genetic algorithm (GA), ant colony optimization (ACO), harmony search (HS), and particle swarm optimization (PSO). In order to evaluate the seismic capacity of the structures, nonlinear pushover analysis is conducted (PBDO). This method is an iterative process needed to meet code requirements. In the PBDO procedure, the metaheuristics minimize the structural weight subjected to performance constraints on inter-story drift ratios at various performance levels. Two numerical examples are presented demonstrating the superiority of the PSO to the GA, ACO and HS metaheuristic algorithms.
327
343
S.
Gholizadeh
S.
Gholizadeh
s.gholizadeh@urmia.ac.ir
R.
Kamyab
R.
Kamyab
H.
Dadashi
H.
Dadashi
structural optimization; metaheuristic; performance-based design; nonlinear pushover analysis; steel structure
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APPLICATION OF THE HYBRID HARMONY SEARCH WITH SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE FOR IDENTIFICATION AND CALSSIFICATION OF DAMAGED ZONE AROUND UNDERGROUND SPACES
2
2
An excavation damage zone (EDZ) can be defined as a rock zone where the rock properties and conditions have been changed due to the processes related to an excavation. This zone affects the behavior of rock mass surrounding the construction that reduces the stability and safety factor and increase probability of failure of the structure. This paper presents an approach to build a model for the identification and classification of the EDZ. The Support vector machine (SVM) is a new machine learning method based on statistical learning theory, which can solve the classification problem with small sampling, non-linearity and high dimension. However, the practicability of the SVM is influenced by the difficulty of selecting appropriate SVM parameters. In this study, the proposed hybrid Harmony search (HS) with the SVM was applied for identification and classification of damaged zone, in which HS was used to determine the optimized free parameters of the SVM. For identification and classification of the EDZ, based upon the modulus of the deformation modulus and using the hybrid of HS with the SVM a model for the identification and classification of the EDZ was built. To illustrate the capability of the HS-SVM model defined, field data from a test gallery of the Gotvand dam, Iran were used. The results obtained indicate that the HS-SVM model can be used successfully for identification and classification of damaged zone around underground spaces.
345
358
H.
Fattahi
H.
Fattahi
M. A.
Ebrahimi Farsangi
M. A.
Ebrahimi Farsangi
S.
Shojaee
S.
Shojaee
K.
Nekooei
K.
Nekooei
H.
Mansouri
H.
Mansouri
excavation damaged zone, harmony search, support vector machine, deformation modulus
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